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The AT firmware is the default firmware for ESP8266 and provides AT style commands for actions such as join access point and send tcp packet. It is distributed in binary form by Espressif, but it can also be built from source (binary blobby as it may be). Typically one can find a new version of AT firmware in each release of Espressif’s SDK.

Since SDK version 1.0.1 the binary distribution of AT has become too large to fit on a 512kB flash. However, at this point in time (end of May 2015) most of the ESP8266 units out there are of the 512 kB variety. Thus begging the queston: how can one update their AT firmware to the latest version

The answer: we will build it ourselves. For this we will need a way to compile esp8266 projects. There are 3 options:

1. Gather the tools yourself (see for example: Russian, Google translated)

2. Use ESP OPEN SDK, which gathers all the tools from (1) for you automatically. They also post updates, such as when new SDKs come out. This is the preferred method.

3. Use the Windows SDK by Cherts. I develop on Linux, so I won’t be covering this route, but it should work just the same.

As our starting point, let’s assume you have the development environment installed. You may have even tried to cd to /SDK/examples/at and tried to build it, but have received the following message:

make: Nothing to be done for `FORCE'.

Running a little bit ahead I will tell you that it is due to Espressif’s makefile structure, but first let’s step back and take a look at the flash layout.

Since SDK 0.8 we’ve had the ability to do OTA updates. This was achieved by splitting the flash into two halves – the current firmware and the incoming update. The device runs from one or the other such that the unused slot may be overwritten with new data. This requires the use of a second stage bootloader, since the first stage (hardware) bootloader always starts executing from the same location and as such, does not recognize existence of two firmware slots. For more details on how that works, see Richard Burton’s excellent series of posts about the ESP bootloading process and his own open source bootloader: rBoot. Furthermore, since there are now two copies of the firmware living in the flash, each one can only be 1/2 as large as before. Let’s take a look at the difference:






















# ------------- 512K single slot --------------------

# 0x00000 - 0x3DFFF (248kB) flash.bin ............ user code

# 0x3E000 - 0x3FFFF (8kB)   master_device_key.bin

# 0x40000 - 0x7DFFF (248kB) irom0text.bin ............ espressif's blobs

# 0x7E000 - 0x7FFFF (8kB)   wifi config

# ------------- 512K layout double slot --------------------

# 0x00000 - 0x00FFF (4kB) boot.bin ............ 2nd stage bootldr

# 0x01000 - 0x3DFFF (249kB) user1.bin ............ firmware 1 (both user code and blobs)

# 0x3e000 - 0x3FFFF (8kB) master_device_key.bin

# 0x40000 - 0x40FFF (4kB) unused

# 0x41000 - 0x7DFFF (249kB) user2.bin ............ firmware 2 (both user code and blobs)

# 0x7e000 - 0x7FFFF (8kB) wifi config

# ------------- 1MB layout --------------------

# 0x00000 - 0x00FFF (4kB) boot.bin

# 0x01000 - 0x7DFFF (512kB) user1.bin

# 0x7e000 - 0x7EFFF (8kB) master_device_key.bin

# 0x80000 - 0x80FFF (4kB) unused

# 0x81000 - 0xFDFFF (512kB) user2.bin

# 0xfe000 - 0xFFFFF (8kB) wifi config

Thus, the amount of memory available to firmware is:

single slot:

512kB flash: 496kB rom

dual slot:

512kB flash: 249kB rom (each)

1024kB flash: 512kB rom (each)

Now let’s take a look at the latest AT, as built with default settings:

irom0text.bin = 208.1 kB              //these are the espressif binary blobs

flash.bin = 43.3 kB                   //this is the user code

total: 251.4 kB

As you can see the combined firmware at 251.4 kB will not fit into the 1/2 flash sized slot of 249kB. Just barely. For this reason Espressif now packages the new AT as built for the larger flash, with a 2 slot setup. With a 512kB flash the only option is to use the whole flash for one firmware, which will accomodate up to 496kB.

An aside:Q: How do I tell what SPI Flash I have and what is its size

A: using reboot into flash mode and issue the following command: ./ flash_id. Using the returned info find your flash chip and look up its specs. This is actually pretty hard, but eventually I found a comment on (don’t know the specific post anymore – hat tip to the unknown). It said that:

Manufacturer: c8

Device: 4013


GigaDevice: 4Mbits/512Kbyte GD25Q40

So where were we Oh, right – we’ve got the build environment installed and we’re going to build our own AT firmware which we will then package into a 1-slot image to be flashed.

Since we’re not going to be modifying the project – we just want to build it – we also won’t rewrite its makefile. We will use Espressif’s makefile, which is rather convoluted. Most of the work is in the non-project specific makefile (let’s call it “master” makefile) and it is referred to from each project as “../Makefile”. If such master makefile is not found, nothing will build. The master makefile takes as its inputs several variables (with defaults). They are defined when you run

If you “make” the master makefile it will attempt to build every directory in its folder. Sort of like “build all projects”. If you go into a project directory and do a “make”, it will build only that project, but it will still need that master makefile.

Here is how you should organize your AT project directory. Create a directory, somewhere away from the SDK, like in your home dir, for example. Fill it with the following contents:


  \--at .......... copy from SDK/examples

  Makefile ....... copy or link from SDK/, this is the master makefile

  include ........ link to SDK/include

  ld ............. link to SDK/ld

  tools .......... link to SDK/tools

  bin ............ create empty, output will be placed here

  \--upgrade ..... create empty

At this point you can either go into /home/my_at/at and run which will have you choose some options interactively and then will call the master makefile. Choose all defaults – this gives us the single slot setup for a 512kB sized flash. Although I prefer to inline these options at the top of the copy of the master makefile. That way I just “make” instead of having to go through prompts. Here’s what I added to the top of /home/my_at/Makefile:




























# My locations


OPENSDK = /home/projects/esp8266/esp-open-sdk

TOOLS = $(OPENSDK)/xtensa-lx106-elf/bin


export COMPILE = gcc


# My defaults. [] = genmisc script defaults


#old=boot_v1.1, new=boot_v1.2 , [none=none]

BOOT := none

#[0=eagle.flash.bin eagle.irom0text.bin], 1=user1.bin, 2=user2.bin

APP = 0

#20MHz, 26.7MHz, [40MHz], 80MHz




#[0= 512KB( 256KB 256KB)]

#2=1024KB( 512KB 512KB)

#3=2048KB( 512KB 512KB)

#4=4096KB( 512KB 512KB)

#5=2048KB(1024KB 1024KB)

#6=4096KB(1024KB 1024KB)


This should produce eagle.flash.bin and eagle.irom0text.bin in the bin directory for us.

Oh, one other note: in SDK 1.1.0_15_05_22 there is a missing define. This was fixed in the latest 1.0.1, but in case you see a linking error complaining that:

undefined reference to 'at_exeCmdCiupdate'

add to user_config.h:


Hat tip to rudi.

Ok, so we’re ready to flash. This should be simple enough: write_flash 0x00000 flash.bin 0x40000 irom0text.bin

But somehow (for me at least) that results in the first 0x5000 bytes being erased (all FF’s). Through some experimentation, it was established that the order of files in the flash command matters. See here for a discussion. write_flash 0x00000 flash.bin 0x40000 irom0text.bin

\-- first 0x5000 bytes nuked write_flash 0x00000 flash.bin 0x40000 irom0text.bin write_flash 0x00000 flash.bin

\-- OK, seems to be the safest method write_flash 0x40000 irom0text.bin 0x00000 flash.bin

\-- OK

If you are encountering this weird flashing issue, could you please comment either here or on

That should right about do it for building and flashing the newest AT firmware from Espressif’s SDKs CaptureOne

Thank you for reading this far ;P

System requirements to install Windows . - Apple Support

Updating Windows 7 is highly recommended for protecting against the threat of WannaCry, WannaCrypt, Spectre, Meltdown, and Uiwix in Windows 7.

March 2018: Microsoft has implemented an update restriction that requires users to install antivirus software that is compatible with patches for Spectre and Meltdown to receive updates in Windows 7. Users that have antivirus solutions that do not meet this compatibility requirement will likely encounter ‘blue screen’ errors. Microsoft is requiring all antivirus software vendors to attest to the compatibility of their applications by setting a Windows registry key, but this also affects users with no antivirus solution. This can be alleviated for users without an antivirus solution by installing Microsoft Security Essentials, or by installing a registry key that would be created by antivirus solutions to pass the check by Windows Update.

Like Windows XP before it, Windows 7 has proven to be a reliable and steadfast platform with many users reluctant to upgrade to newer versions. Even over a year after the end of mainstream support for Windows 7 by Microsoft, web traffic statistics site StatCounter reports that over 40% of users are still using Windows 7, although Windows 10 is on the rise. However, Windows Update issues have frequently plagued Windows 7 over the last year, and this has been particularly troublesome for fresh Windows installs. In this blog post, I will examine this problem and offer some solutions.


Mainstream support for Windows 7 has ended, but extended support will continue into 2020. Hoping to simplify the update process on a fresh install, in May 2016 Microsoft released what has been dubbed the “Convenience Rollup,” encapsulating many Windows 7 updates that came after the release of Service Pack 1. While the Convenience Rollup includes a large number of updates, there are many others that are not bundled with it and these additional updates can take quite some time to find and install through Windows Update. Microsoft notes that this was done on purpose:

We intentionally did not include any specific post-Service Pack 1 updates in convenience rollup 3125574 for which the following conditions are true:

  • They don’t have broad applicability.
  • They introduce behavior changes.
  • They require additional user actions, such as making registry settings.

One of the biggest issues users have encountered with the Convenience Rollup is when Windows Update gets stuck on “Checking for updates” with the graphic continually looping, giving no sign of progress being made.

Paul Thurrott recently posted an article titled “The Convenience Rollup Makes a Big Difference, But Windows 7 Updating is Still Broken”. He later updated the article, writing that after two hours of waiting, Windows Update eventually did offer to install additional updates.

Now, I’d like to share some solutions for what to do when Windows Update hangs, or gets stuck checking for updates, in Windows 7.

Windows 7 Update Guide

Before proceeding, be sure to determine whether your computer has 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) Windows, and whether Service Pack 1 (SP1) is installed.

  1. Open System by clicking the Start button, right-clicking Computer, and then clicking Properties
  2. Under the System section, you can view the system type. Additionally, the Windows Edition information will tell you whether Service Pack 1 is installed

It is also recommended to change your power options temporarily so that your computer will not enter sleep mode during the update process.

If you are not updating Windows 7 from a new installation state, it is strongly recommended that you make a backup of your data before proceeding.

Updating a New Installation

Time Estimate: Around an hour or two.

Note:These instructions have been updated with elements from a Reddit post by user “good1dave“. Please consider visiting the forum and giving him an upvote on his thread.

  1. Start with a fresh install of Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (SP1) with network drivers installed. During the install procedure choose “Ask me later” when prompted to select update settings.
    • If you did not choose “Ask me later” as your update setting during the install process, change your update settings via “Start” > “Windows Update” > “Change settings” > and choose “Never check for updates (not recommended).” Then restart your computer.
    • If your Windows 7 install does not include Service Pack 1, be sure to install Windows 7 Service Pack 1 first.

  2. To install the “Convenience Rollup,” you will need to install a prerequisite patch first. Download and install the prerequisite KB3020369, known as the “April 2015 servicing stack update for Windows 7.” (alternate link to KB3020369 files)

  3. Restart the PC, even if not prompted to do so.

  4. Download and install the appropriate version of KB3125574 known as the “Convenience Rollup.”

    • Option 1: Direct download links
    • Option 2: Using the Microsoft Update Catalog (try a different browser if you encounter problems.)
  5. Restart the PC, even if not prompted to do so.

  6. Download and install the appropriate version of KB3138612 known as “Windows Update Client for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2: March 2016.” (alternate link to KB3138612 files)

  7. Restart the PC, even if not prompted to do so.

  8. Download and install the appropriate version of KB3145739 known as “Microsoft Security Bulletin MS16-039 — Security Update for Microsoft Graphics component (3148522).” (alternate link to KB3145739 files)

  9. Restart the PC, even if not prompted to do so.

  10. Download and install the appropriate version of KB3172605 known as the “July 2016 update rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1.” (alternate link to KB3172605 files)

  11. Restart the PC, even if not prompted to do so.

  12. Due to the March 2018 requirements imposed by Microsoft, a check for Spectre- and Meltdown-compatible antivirus is required to receive updates. Incompatible antivirus solutions are known to cause stop errors (blue screen errors). Ensure your antivirus software is up-to-date if you have any installed, or if you do not have antivirus software installed, either install Microsoft Security Essentials or follow Microsoft’s guide to install a registry key that will ignore the lack of antivirus software.

  13. Install the latest update rollup below. Remember to restart your computer after installing even if not prompted to do so. You should only need the last one out of this list. The earlier rollups will be kept here for archival purposes and as alternatives in case the latest update is unavailable due to a retraction of the update by Microsoft.

    • KB3179573 — “August 2016 update rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB3179573 files)
    • KB3185278 — “September 2016 update rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB3185278 files)
    • KB3185330 — “October 2016 security monthly quality rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB3185330 files)
    • KB3197868 — “November 2016 Security Monthly Quality Rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB3197868 files)
    • KB3207752 — “December 2016 Security Monthly Quality Rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB3207752 files)
    • KB3212646 — “January 2017 Security Monthly Quality Rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB3212646 files)
    • KB4012215 — “March 2017 Security Monthly Quality Rollup for Windows 7 SP1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1” (alternate link to KB4012215 files)
    • KB4015549 — “April 11, 2017—KB4015549 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4015549 files)

  14. KB4019264 — “May 9, 2017—KB4019264 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4019264 files)
  15. KB4022719 — “June 13, 2017—KB4022719 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4022719 files)
  16. KB4019264 — “July 11, 2017—KB4025341 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4019264 files)
  17. KB4034664 — “August 8, 2017—KB4034664 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4034664 files)
  18. KB4038777 — “September 12, 2017—KB4038777 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4038777 files)
  19. KB4048957 — “November 14, 2017—KB4048957 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4048957 files)
  20. KB4054518 — “December 12, 2017—KB4054518 (Monthly Rollup)” (alternate link to KB4054518 files)

Important: At this point you should be able to run Windows Update normally. However, it has been observed that sometimes Windows Update will still offer Service Pack 1 (SP1) as an update even if you are already using Service Pack 1. If you see this in the list of offered updates, deselect the update, then right-click the update and choose the “hide” option.

While the steps above will get Windows 7 up-to-date for most users, there are still problems that can arise. For example, if you tried to run Windows Update before applying the Convenience Rollup, the older version of Windows Update Agent may have caused additional problems with the update process that would need to be resolved. In some cases, this will mean doing a thorough reset of Windows Update Unlocker1.9.1

I hope this guide helps you to keep your install of Windows 7 up-to-date so your Plugable products keep plugging along!

Read more Has anyone had issues with this It's a GPO security update: there are repo. | 236 replies | WSUS and Windows,Thank you for a very helpful post, it worked for me, I really needed those extra files, and the stop windows update tip. Win 7 updated with the rollup, but stalled on .,01smicha wrote: Alex Dovlatov wrote: Will_3rd wrote: Do you use WSUS You can set the update to be removed which will then reject it. The answer is in my question.

Read more 01smicha wrote: Alex Dovlatov wrote: Will_3rd wrote: Do you use WSUS You can set the update to be removed which will then reject it. The answer is in my question.,I have run into this same issue - not sure why, and when it happens the only way I have ever gotten the chart to force update is to change something in the chart .,Has anyone had issues with this It's a GPO security update: there are repo. | 236 replies | WSUS and Windows

Read more In macOS High Sierra, you can install Windows 10, Windows 8.1, and Windows 7 using Boot Camp Assistant on supported Mac models. Select a link below to learn about the .,So where were we Oh, right – we’ve got the build environment installed and we’re going to build our own AT firmware which we will then package into a 1-slot .,Has anyone had issues with this It's a GPO security update: there are repo. | 236 replies | WSUS and Windows

Known issues of Convenience rollup KB3125574

This article was written for Thunderbird but also applies to Mozilla Suite / SeaMonkey (though some menu sequences may differ).

When you delete messages in an email client such as Thunderbird they aren't physically deleted. Even emptying the Trash does not get rid of them. Instead they are marked for deletion and hidden from view. They are not physically removed until you "compact" the folder. This is a tradeoff done to improve performance in large folders.

Messages in a Trash folder aren't actually deleted messages, when you delete a message in a POP account it copies the message to the Trash folder and then deletes the original. When you empty the trash it physically removes (expunges) the messages in the Trash folder. You can't undo that.

"Compacting" a folder has nothing to do with compressing or zipping a file. Compressing/zipping only changes how data is stored; compacting changes the actual data. Compacting a folder frees wasted space but the main reason to do it regularly is because it's a type of preventative maintenance. If you don't compact your folders regularly, performance can slow to a crawl, you can't store new messages anymore, start losing parts of messages or have deleted messages resurrected. If you notice a message has a date of 1969 that is due to it losing the Date: header in the message.

Corrupt folders tend to occur when you have lots of messages in a folder, many of them are deleted, and you don't compact often enough. This is usually only a problem for the inbox folder as while other folders may get very large you typically don't delete messages in them often. It's recommended that you keep the number of messages in your inbox small, and move any you want to permanently keep to other folders/child folders.

How to compact folders

It's recommended that you configure Thunderbird to automatically compact folders rather than try to guess how often is often enough. Automatic is the default starting in version 5. However, a few people have problems due to automatic compacting while something else is happening, if this occurs switch to working offline using File -> Offline -> Work Offline, select an account and then manually compact the folders in that account using File -> Compact Folders instead. You can also compact a specific folder by right clicking on it and selecting "Compact" from the context menu.


The easiest way to compact is to let Thunderbird do it automatically. If you are running version 5 or newer Tools -> Options -> Advanced -> Network Disk Space -> "Compact folders when it will save over X MB" (Thunderbird) or Edit -> Preferences -> Mail Newsgroups -> Network Storage -> "Compact all folders when it will save over X MB in total" (SeaMonkey) is automatically enabled and defaults to 20MB. If you are running versions prior to Thunderbird 5, check the checkbox for "Tools -> Options -> Advanced -> Network Disk Space -> Disk Space -> Compact folder when it will save over 100 kB" and then press the OK button.

See this link for menu paths in various operating systems:,_Linux,_and_Mac

Some people prefer to use a large number to reduce how often they run into a delay due to Thunderbird compacting folders. Others prefer to use a smaller number since it takes far less time to compact when you compact often. Regardless of which approach you choose keep in mind that it's not just a question of wasted space, you want to avoid having too large a percentage of deleted messages in the folder to help reduce the chance of it becoming corrupt. 1MB is usually recommended, and in recent versions it is the minimum possible value.

This limit used to be stored in mail.purge_threshhold, in KB. Thunderbird 5 and later versions (and SeaMonkey 2.2 and later) ignore that setting and use mail.purge_threshhold_mb in MB instead. (see bug 437657).

mail.purge.ask defaults to false in recent versions of Thunderbird and of SeaMonkey, to disable being prompted if it's okay to automatically compact the folder. In old versions you may need to modify that using the Preferences or Options dialog (see above), Thunderbird's config editor or SeaMonkey's about:config.


You have several additional options if you are using a IMAP account. If you check "Tools -> Account Settings -> Server Settings -> Clean up ("Expunge") Inbox on Exit it will compact the Inbox folder when you exit Thunderbird. If you check "Empty Trash on Exit" it will also empty and compact the Trash folder when you exit.

If you don't like the performance tradeoffs due to automatically compacting when a certain amount of space is wasted you can configure Thunderbird 3 and later versions to auto-expunge messages instead. This will physically remove deleted messages when you have 20 deleted messages. You can also replace 20 with a different limit. See Deleting messages in IMAP accounts if you want to do that. If you're using offline folders and configured to AutoSync (Thunderbird 3.0 and later does this by default) it will expunge the deleted message in both the remote folder and the offline copy of the folder (an mbox file).


The web page for some of these add-ons state they add a button to the toolbar. However, it really just adds the button to the set of buttons available for the toolbar. The button is not displayed unless you customize the toolbar to actually add the button. You can customize the toolbar by right clicking on it, selecting customize, drag and drop the button to the toolbar, and then press OK.

The Xpunge add-on lets you add a button to empty the trash and compact the folders in multiple accounts (in one step). You can also set a timer to automate that.

The CompactFolder add-on lets you add a button to the toolbar to compact the currently selected folder. The Mozilla Add-ons web site has several other extensions that add buttons to compact folders.

Undoing compacting

You cannot undo compacting, there is no such thing as "uncompacting". Compacting physically removes messages marked for deletion and hidden from view. Once they're gone, they're gone. Usually when somebody asks how to "uncompact" a folder they lost messages due to compacting. Sometimes the messages were already gone, but that wasn't noticeable because they were still listed in the folder listing. Other times compacting a folder physically removed messages it shouldn't have because the folder was too corrupt.

If you suspect a folder is badly corrupted, don't compact it. It might make things worse because compacting depends upon Thunderbird being able to parse the mbox file (the text file named after the folder that contains all of the messages for that folder) and figure out where every message begins and ends. Thunderbird can't use the so-called index file (folder_name.msf) to do this. Once Thunderbird starts to lose track of where each message begins and ends, compacting can cause the physical removal of other messages because it thinks other messages are part of the deleted message. It's unusual but possible to lose every message in a folder by compacting it if the folder was badly corrupted.

If you suspect a folder is badly corrupted, try to fix it by following the instructions in compacting does not seem to work instead.

Problems when compacting

Compacting seems to take forever

Usually it only takes a couple of minutes to compact your folders unless your profile is over a gigabyte in size, or your computer is slow. Factors contributing to making a computer slow include: being on on a laptop with a slow disk or running on battery, antivirus software watching your Thunderbird file activity (it should never do so), having moved your Thunderbird profile or folders from the default location, and inadequate free disk space which results in highly fragmented disk with resulting poor disk performance.

You can terminate or exit Thunderbird before it finishes compacting and the worst that will happen is that it fails to delete some nstmp temporary files that it created and you have to manually delete them.

The status bar at the bottom of the window may not remove the text about it compacting a folder when it finishes. It may also fail to update that text to mention the last folder in that account if you use "File -> Compact Folders". If you do something else that normally displays some text in the status bar, it should replace the message about compacting.

Compacting does not seem to work

If compacting folders doesn't seem to work even for a single folder (where you right-click on the folder and choose "Compact" from the context menu), it is possible that the folders and/or the .msf mail summary files are corrupted.

Quick and dirty fix

If the corruption is mild you frequently can fix it by deleting the .msf files for the corrupt folders. There are two ways you can do this.

1. Delete the .msf file(s)

  • Exit Thunderbird.
  • Find your profile. If you can not see it read this article .
  • Make a temporary backup of it.
  • Delete all of the files ending in .msf in your profile. Thunderbird will recreate them when it starts.

2. Rebuild the index file within Thunderbird

Right click on each corrupt folder in Thunderbird, select Properties, and then press the "Repair Folder" button. It's quicker/simpler if you only have a problem with a few folders, such as the Inbox.

Real fix

If the folder is severely corrupted, deleting the .msf file won't help much, and compacting the folder may just make things worse because Thunderbird can't reliably figure out where a message ends anymore. You'll typically run into this only with the Inbox folder. It's much more vulnerable to corruption because it frequently has both lots of messages and a high percentage of deleted (but not visible) messages. That's why it's recommended that you move messages you want to keep to other folders/child folders rather than keep storing them in the Inbox. You can fix the problem by replacing the corrupt folder with a new known good folder. These instructions assume the Inbox folder is corrupt but you can adapt them for any folder.

  1. Exit Thunderbird and backup your profile folder using something like MozBackup.
  2. Start Thunderbird.
  3. Move all of the messages in the Inbox to other folders/child folders. You can select all of the messages using Control-A. If you have problems moving all of the messages, do it in multiple steps, where you select only a few messages each time.
  4. Verify that all of the messages have been moved.
  5. Exit Thunderbird and delete BOTH the "inbox." and "inbox.msf" files for that account. Leave "Inbox.sbd" alone. You can find where the Inbox folder is stored by looking at Tools -> Account Settings -> Server Settings -> Local Directory, or Tools -> Account Settings -> Local Folders -> Local Directory if you are using a Global Inbox. Its at the bottom of that pane, next to a Browse button.
  6. Start Thunderbird. It will automatically create a new Inbox folder.

While it's possible to move the messages back to the (new) Inbox, it's recommended you don't do that.

Compact causes message tabs or windows to close

Compact can cause messages open in tabs or windows to disappear. If this affects your workflow a reasonable approach is a) disable automatic compact, and instead b) perform it periodically without fail at a time convenient to you, like before shutting Thunderbird down.a) tools | options | advanced | network and diskb) for each account, do File | Compact Folders

Deleting attachments

Deleting an attachment doesn't immediately decrease the size of the mbox file used to store the messages for that folder. In fact it increases it.

When you delete an attachment it isn't physically deleted. Thunderbird marks the original message as deleted and creates a copy without the attachment. The copy doesn't have the attachment but has headers recording the fact that there used to be an attachment. This extra copy is what temporarily increases the size. You only see the copy because messages marked for deletion are automatically hidden from view.

When you compact the folder the original message is physically deleted, and only the copy without the attachment is left. This reduces the size of the mbox file KMPlayer

See also

External links

[SOLVED] How to block specific MS KB from installing via .

I had the same problem while working through a tutorial (very frustrating when you follow the steps and don't get the expected result).

The tutorial to create a pie chart wanted me to select range A3:A10, then also select non-adjacent range E3:E10. I did so. I got the chart.

It then asked me to change a value and watch the percentage change, then to look at the pie chart and see the update.

It didn't update.

I looked at the data source for the pie chart, and the range was bizarre. It had the A3:A10 range notated properly, but the E10 cell reference repeated several times, and it had all of the E cells listed in a random order. It looked like


I changed the data source to read:


Problem solved. Sometimes it's a matter of cleaning up your code so the calculations processor has less to sort through Windows 8 Skin Pack Final For Windows XP

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